DNA to RNA to Protein

Discussion in 'Science and Technology' started by easymon1, Aug 30, 2019.

  1. easymon1




    The structure of the DNA double helix. The atoms in the structure are colour-coded by element and the detailed structures of two base pairs are shown in the bottom right.


    Location of eukaryote nuclear DNA within the chromosomes


    T7 RNA polymerase (blue) producing an mRNA (green) from a DNA template (orange)


    DNA replication. The double helix is unwound by a helicase and topoisomerase. Next, one DNA polymerase produces the leading strand copy. Another DNA polymerase binds to the lagging strand. This enzyme makes discontinuous segments (called Okazaki fragments) before DNA ligase joins them together.


    Interaction of DNA (in orange) with histones (in blue). These proteins' basic amino acids bind to the acidic phosphate groups on DNA.


    The lambda repressor helix-turn-helix transcription factor bound to its DNA target


    The restriction enzyme EcoRV (green) in a complex with its substrate DNA[


    Recombination involves the breaking and rejoining of two chromosomes (M and F) to produce two rearranged chromosomes (C1 and C2).


    Structure of the Holliday junction intermediate in genetic recombination. The four separate DNA strands are coloured red, blue, green and yellow


    The DNA structure at left (schematic shown) will self-assemble into the structure visualized by atomic force microscopy at right. DNA nanotechnology is the field that seeks to design nanoscale structures using the molecular recognition properties of DNA molecules. Image from Strong, 2004
    Last edited: Aug 31, 2019
  2. Ayn Rand

    Ayn Rand

    What is the purpose of this post? You are doing documented research on genetic composition and mechanics.

    In the picture starting the entry, what are the snowflake like structures under the double helixes?

    "element and the detailed structures of two base pairs"

    How about a list of elements. Are you surprises that there are actually so few elements used in DNA? Why these elements? Weight/size might have something to do with it.

    What are the base pairs? Are you surprised there are only 4/5 (RNA)? Is there anything about the chemical structure of these base pairs that make them unique? Recently some unnatural base pairs have been made in the lab. Compare and contrast.
  3. easymon1


    thanks ms ayn rand,

    dna is a supremely intresting molecule.

    it has a patience that we can only say.

    apart from what we see around us today

    dna expression progression.jpg

    what would you say it can do, . . .

    given time?

    show your work.
    Last edited: Sep 1, 2019
  4. easymon1


    Last edited: Sep 18, 2019
  5. Ayn Rand

    Ayn Rand

    This is a nice You Tube video except for the very last part. However, it does not come close to capturing the activity and speed of DNA replication in the body of any organism.

    The example is showing 1 chromosome in a cell. In the human cell there are 23 chromosomal pairs. They say real time but I suspect what is being shown is too slow.

    Again 1 chromosome in a cell. Human cells have 23 pairs or 46 chromosomes. What is shown in the example for just 1 chromosome is happening to each or the 46 chromosomes in the cell. I suspect no one can mentally capture the 46 at once.

    Human - Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes or 46 chromosomes. It is estimated that each processing cell renders 40-60 base pair copies per second. There are about 1 trillion DNA rendering cells in the human body(blood cells do not contain a nucleus or DNA). So each second the human body is making copies of 40-60 trillion base pairs.

    What is amazing is that this replication process is done so well. Fast and many, yet few mistakes. When there are mistakes there is a process to fix the error.

    The amount of cell activity devoted to replicating DNA is beyond believe. If you can get your mind around the numbers then perhaps you can appreciate the term "metabolism". Lots of energy is being used to replicate DNA - 40-60 trillion base pairs a second.

    The processing of DNA could go on and on but to say that it is all a manifestation of random mutation and natural selection is - they do not even have a word for how far away from the truth this is.

    **The conundrum has been that random mutation and natural selection do work as a process to further refine existing features. It as if RA and NS are sandpaper to an existing structure.**

    The Holy Grail is "The Purpose".

    The best I can do is - to provide for Superior Replacements after we are Gone.
  6. easymon1


  7. easymon1


  8. easymon1


    Thomas Dolby - She Blinded Me With Science

    How I discovered DNA - James Watson
  9. easymon1


  10. easymon1



    The chemistry leading to life may have begun shortly after the Big Bang, 13.8 billion years ago, during a habitable epoch when the Universe was only 10 to 17 million years old. Though the presence of life is confirmed only on the Earth, some scientists think that extraterrestrial life is not only plausible, but probable or inevitable. Probes and instruments have started examining other planets and moons in the Solar System and in other planetary systems for evidence of having once supported simple life, and projects such as SETI attempt to detect radio transmissions from possible extraterrestrial civilizations.


    Organic compounds
    Just as fascinating are suggestive astronomical findings, such as the Rosetta mission’s discovery of organic compounds on and around the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. This finding coincides nicely with Hoyle and Wickramasinghe’s demonstration that interstellar dust is partly made of organic molecules.

    space station.jpg

    to analyze the popular theory that the creation account in the book of Genesis follows the same literary framework, or is strikingly similar to other Ancient Near Eastern creation myths. No one is denying that there are some superficial similarities. However, when I read the Mesopotamian and Egyptian creation myths side-by-side with the book of Genesis, the substantial differences far outweigh the similarities.


    Can The Theory of Cosmic Ancestry Be Tested?
    Since 1996, specific updates follow each subtopic. General ones come last
    Find more tests in the Next pages and many more in the What'sNEW Index
    The theory of Cosmic Ancestry is a serious scientific theory, but it is not proven. As here presented, it probably contains mistakes. It is a working hypothesis, and many of its details are speculative. The direct evidence supporting it is thin. How could Cosmic Ancestry be proven? If true, it should have measurable consequences. How could we test them?


    COSMIC ANCESTRY | Quick Guide
    Quick Guide to Cosmic Ancestry
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    #10     May 1, 2020
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